Kennedy Speech Graduation Annapolis Naval Academy 6/7/1961 - History

Kennedy Speech Graduation Annapolis Naval Academy 6/7/1961 - History

Kennedy Speech Graduation Annapolis Naval Academy 6/7/1961

Admiral, Mr. Secretary, members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, members of the faculty, members of the Graduating Class and their families:

I am proud as a citizen of the United States to come to this institution and this room where there is concentrated so many men who have committed themselves to the defense of the United States. I am honored to be here.

In the past I have had some slight contact with this Service, though I never did reach the state of professional and physical perfection where I could hope that anyone would ever mistake me for an Annapolis graduate.

I know that you are constantly warned during your days here not to mix, in your Naval career, in politics. I should point out, however, on the other side, that my rather rapid rise from a Reserve Lieutenant, of uncertain standing, to Commander-in-Chief, has been because I did not follow that very good advice. I trust, however, that those of you who are Regulars will, for a moment, grant a retired civilian officer some measure of fellowship.

Nearly a half century ago, President Woodrow Wilson came here to Annapolis on a similar mission, and addressed the Class Of 1914- On that day, the graduating class numbered 154 men. There has been, since that time, a revolution in the size of our military establishment, and that revolution has been reflected in the revolution in the world around us.

When Wilson addressed the class in 1994, the Victorian structure of power was still intact, the world was dominated by Europe, and Europe itself was the scene of an uneasy balance of power between dominant figures and America was a spectator on a remote sideline.

The autumn after Wilson came to Annapolis, the Victorian world began to fall to pieces, and our world one-half a century later is vastly different. Today we are witnesses to the most extraordinary revolution, nearly, in the history of the world, as the emergent nations of Latin America, Africa, and Asia awaken from long centuries of torpor and impatience.

Today the Victorian certitude's which were taken to be so much a part of man's natural existence are under siege by a faith committed to the destruction of liberal civilization, and today the United States is no longer the spectator, but the leader.

This half century, therefore, has not only revolutionized the size of our military establishment, it has brought about also a more striking revolution in the things that the Nation expects from the men in our Service.

Fifty years ago the graduates of the Naval Academy were expected to be seamen and leaders of men. They were reminded of the saying of John Paul Jones, "Give me a fair ship so that I might go into harm's way." When Captain Mahan began to write in the nineties on the general issues of war and peace and naval strategy, the Navy quickly shipped him to sea duty. Today we expect all of you-in fact, you trust, of necessity be prepared not only to handle a ship in a storm or a landing party on a beach, but to make great determinations which affect the survival of this country. The revolution in the technology of war makes it necessary in order that you, when you hold positions of command, may make an educated judgment between various techniques, that you also be a scientist and an engineer and a physicist, and your responsibilities go far beyond the classic problems of tactics and strategy.

In the years to come, some of you will serve as your Commandant did last year, as an adviser to foreign governments; some will negotiate as Admiral Burke did, in Korea, with other governments on behalf of the United States; some will go to the far reaches of space and some will go to the bottom of the ocean. Many of you from one time or another, in the positions of command, or as members of staff, will participate in great decisions which go far beyond the narrow reaches of professional competence. You gentlemen, therefore, have a most important responsibility, to recognize that your education is just beginning, and to be prepared, in the most difficult period in the life of our country, to play the roll that the country hopes and needs and expects from you. You must understand not only this country but other countries. You must know something about strategy and tactics and logic-logistics, but also economics and politics and diplomacy and history. You must know everything you can know about military power, and you must also understand the limits of military power. You must understand that few of the important problems of our time have, in the final analysis, been finally solved by military power alone. When I say that officers today must go far beyond the official curriculum, I say it not because I do not believe in the traditional relationship between the civilian and the military, but you must be more than the servants of national policy. You must be prepared to play a constructive role in the development of national policy, a policy which protects our interests and our security and the peace of the world.

Woodrow Wilson reminded your predecessors that you were not serving a government or an administration, but a people. In serving the American people, you represent the American people and the best of the ideals of this free society. Your posture and your performance will provide many people far beyond our shores, who know very little of our country, the only evidence they will ever see as to whether America is truly dedicated to the cause of justice and freedom.

In my inaugural address, I said that each citizen should be concerned not with what his country can do for him, but what he can do for his country. What you have chosen to do for your country, by devoting your life to the service of our country, is the greatest contra 'button that any man could make. It is easy for you, in a moment of exhilaration today, to say that you freely and gladly dedicate your life to the United States. But the life of service is a constant test of your will.

It will be hard at times to face the personal sacrifice and the family inconvenience, to maintain this high resolve, to place the needs of your country above all else. When there is a visible enemy to fight, the tide of patriotism in this country runs strong. But when there is a long, slow struggle, with no immediate visible foe, when you watch your contemporaries indulging the urge for material gain and comfort and personal advancement, your choice will seem hard, and you will recall, I am sure, the lines found in an old sentry box at Gibraltar, "God and the soldier all men adore in time of trouble and no more, for when war is over, and all things righted, God is neglected and the old soldier slighted."

Never forget, however, that the battle for freedom takes many forms. Those who through vigilance and firmness and devotion are the great servants of this country-and let us have no doubt that the United States needs your devoted assistance today.

The answer to those who challenge us so severely in so many parts of the globe lies in our willingness to freely commit ourselves to the maintenance of our country and the things for which it stands. This ceremony today represents the kind of commitment which you are willing to make. For that reason, I am proud to be here. This nation salutes you as you commence your service to our country in the hazardous days ahead. And on behalf of all of them, I congratulate you and thank you.

Note: The President spoke at 11:04 a. m. at the Field House. His opening words "Admiral, Mr. Secretary" referred to Rear Adm. John F. Davidson, Superintendent of the Naval Academy, and John B. Connally, jr., Secretary of the Navy.


Kennedy Speech Graduation Annapolis Naval Academy 6/7/1961 - History

United States Military Academy Commencement Address

delivered 6 June 1962, West Point, New York

General Westmoreland, General Lemnitzer, Mr. Secretary, General Decker, General Taylor, members of the graduating class and their parents, gentlemen:

I want to express my appreciation for your generous invitation to come to this graduating class. I am sure that all of you who sit here today realize, particularly in view of the song we have just heard, that you are part of a long tradition stretching back to the earliest days of this country's history, and that where you sit sat once some of the most celebrated names in our Nation's history, and also some who are not so well known, but who, on 100 different battlefields in many wars involving every generation of this country's history, have given very clear evidence of their commitment to their country.

So that I know you feel a sense of pride in being part of that tradition, and as a citizen of the United States, as well as President, I want to express our high regard to all of you in appreciation for what you are doing and what you will do for our country in the days ahead.

I would also like to announce at this time that as Commander in Chief I am exercising my privilege of directing the Secretary of the Army and the Superintendent of West Point to remit all existing confinements and other cadet punishments, and I hope that it will be possible to carry this out today.

General Westmoreland was slightly pained to hear that this was impending in view of the fact that one cadet, who I am confident will some day be the head of the Army, has just been remitted for 8 months, and is about to be released. But I am glad to have the opportunity to participate in the advancement of his military career.

My own confinement goes for another two and a half years, and I may ask for it to be extended instead of remitted.

I want to say that I wish all of you, the graduates, success. While I say that, I am not unmindful of the fact that two graduates of this Academy have reached the White House, and neither was a member of my party. Until I am more certain that this trend will be broken, I wish that all of you may be generals and not Commanders in Chief.

I want to say that I am sure you recognize that your schooling is only interrupted by today's occasion and not ended because the demands that will be made upon you in the service of your country in the coming months and years will be really more pressing, and in many ways more burdensome, as well as more challenging, than ever before in our history. I know that many of you may feel, and many of our citizens may feel that in these days of the nuclear age, when war may last in its final form a day or two or three days before much of the world is burned up, that your service to your country will be only standing and waiting. Nothing, of course, could be further from the truth. I am sure that many Americans believe that the days before World War II were the golden age when the stars were falling on all the graduates of West Point, that that was the golden time of service, and that you have moved into a period where military service, while vital, is not as challenging as it was then. Nothing could be further from the truth.

The fact of the matter is that the period just ahead in the next decade will offer more opportunities for service to the graduates of this Academy than ever before in the history of the United States, because all around the world, in countries which are heavily engaged in the maintenance of their freedom, graduates of this Academy are heavily involved. Whether it is in Viet-Nam or in Laos or in Thailand, whether it is a military advisory group in Iran, whether it is a military attachй in some Latin American country during a difficult and challenging period, whether it is the commander of our troops in South Korea -- the burdens that will be placed upon you when you fill those positions as you must inevitably, will require more from you than ever before in our history.

The graduates of West Point, the Naval Academy, and the Air Academy in the next 10 years will have the greatest opportunity for the defense of freedom that this Academy's graduates have ever had. And I am sure that the Joint Chiefs of Staff endorse that view, knowing as they do and I do, the heavy burdens that are required of this Academy's graduates every day-General Tucker in Laos, or General Harkins in Viet-Nam, and a dozen others who hold key and significant positions involving the security of the United States and the defense of freedom. You are going to follow in their footsteps and I must say that I think that you will be privileged in the years ahead to find yourselves so heavily involved in the great interests of this country.

Therefore, I hope that you realize -- and I hope every American realizes -- how much we depend upon you. Your strictly military responsibilities, therefore, will require a versatility and an adaptability never before required in either war or in peace. They may involve the command and control of modern nuclear weapons and modern delivery systems, so complex that only a few scientists can understand their operation, so devastating that their inadvertent use would be of worldwide concern, but so new that their employment and their effects have never been tested in combat conditions.

On the other hand, your responsibilities may involve the command of more traditional forces, but in less traditional roles. Men risking their lives, not as combatants, but as instructors or advisers, or as symbols of our Nation's commitments. The fact that the United States is not directly at war in these areas in no way diminishes the skill and the courage that will be required, the service to our country which is rendered, or the pain of the casualties which are suffered.

To cite one final example of the range of responsibilities that will fall upon you: you may hold a position of command with our special forces, forces which are too unconventional to be called conventional, forces which are growing in number and importance and significance, for we now know that it is wholly misleading to call this "the nuclear age," or to say that our security rests only on the doctrine of massive retaliation.

Korea has not been the only battleground since the end of the Second World War. Men have fought and died in Malaya, in Greece, in the Philippines, in Algeria and Cuba and Cyprus, and almost continuously on the Indo-Chinese Peninsula. No nuclear weapons have been fired. No massive nuclear retaliation has been considered appropriate. This is another type of war, new in its intensity, ancient in its origin -- war by guerrillas, subversives, insurgents, assassins, war by ambush instead of by combat by infiltration, instead of aggression, seeking victory by eroding and exhausting the enemy instead of engaging him. It is a form of warfare uniquely adapted to what has been strangely called "wars of liberation," to undermine the efforts of new and poor countries to maintain the freedom that they have finally achieved. It preys on economic unrest and ethnic conflicts. It requires in those situations where we must counter it, and these are the kinds of challenges that will be before us in the next decade if freedom is to be saved, a whole new kind of strategy, a wholly different kind of force, and therefore a new and wholly different kind of military training.

But I have spoken thus far only of the military challenges which your education must prepare you for. The nonmilitary problems which you will face will also be most demanding, diplomatic, political, and economic. In the years ahead, some of you will serve as advisers to foreign aid missions or even to foreign governments. Some will negotiate terms of a cease-fire with broad political as well as military ramifications. Some of you will go to the far corners of the earth, and to the far reaches of space. Some of you will sit in the highest councils of the Pentagon. Others will hold delicate command posts which are international in character. Still others will advise on plans to abolish arms instead of using them to abolish others.

Whatever your position, the scope of your decisions will not be confined to the traditional tenets of military competence and training. You will need to know and understand not only the foreign policy of the United States but the foreign policy of all countries scattered around the world who 20 years ago were the most distant names to us. You will need to give orders in different tongues and read maps by different systems. You will be involved in economic judgments which most economists would hesitate to make. At what point, for example, does military aid become burdensome to a country and make its freedom endangered rather than helping to secure it? To what extent can the gold and dollar cost of our overseas deployments be offset by foreign procurement? Or at what stage can a new weapons system be considered sufficiently advanced to justify large dollar appropriations?

In many countries, your posture and performance will provide the local population with the only evidence of what our country is really like. In other countries, your military mission, its advice and action, will play a key role in determining whether those people will remain free. You will need to understand the importance of military power and also the limits of military power, to decide what arms should be used to fight and when they should be used to prevent a fight, to determine what represents our vital interests and what interests are only marginal.

Above all, you will have a responsibility to deter war as well as to fight it. For the basic problems facing the world today are not susceptible of a final military solution. While we will long require the services and admire the dedication and commitment of the fighting men of this country, neither our strategy nor our psychology as a nation, and certainly not our economy, must become permanently dependent upon an ever-increasing military establishment.

Our forces, therefore, must fulfill a broader role as a complement to our diplomacy, as an arm of our diplomacy, as a deterrent to our adversaries, and as a symbol to our allies of our determination to support them.

That is why this Academy has seen its curriculum grow and expand in dimension, in substance, and in difficulty. That is why you cannot possibly have crowded into these 4 busy years all of the knowledge and all of the range of experience which you must bring to these subtle and delicate tasks which I have described. And that is why go to school year after year so you can serve this country to the best of your ability and your talent.

To talk of such talent and effort raises in the minds, I am sure, of everyone, and the minds of all of our countrymen, why -- why should men such as you, able to master the complex arts of science, mathematics, language, economy, and all the rest devote their lives to a military career, with all of its risks and hardships? Why should their families be expected to make the personal and financial sacrifices that a military career inevitably brings with it? When there is a visible enemy to fight in open combat, the answer is not so difficult. Many serve, all applaud, and the tide of patriotism runs high. But when there is a long, slow struggle, with no immediate visible foe, your choice will seem hard indeed. And you will recall, I am sure, the lines found in an old sentry box in Gibraltar:

God and the soldier all men adore
In time of trouble -- and no more,
For when war is over, and all things righted,
God is neglected -- and the old soldier slighted.

But you have one satisfaction, however difficult those days may be: when you are asked by a President of the United States or by any other American what you are doing for your country, no man's answer will be clearer than your own. And that moral motivation which brought you here in the first place is part of your training here as well. West Point was not built to produce technical experts alone. It was built to produce men committed to the defense of their country, leaders of men who understand the great stakes which are involved, leaders who can be entrusted with the heavy responsibility which modern weapons and the fight for freedom entail, leaders who can inspire in their men the same sense of obligation to duty which you bring to it.

There is no single slogan that you can repeat to yourself in hard days or give to those who may be associated with you. In times past, a simple phrase, "54-40 or fight" or "to make the world safe for democracy"-that was enough. But the times, the weapons, and the issues are now more complicated than ever.

Eighteen years ago today, Ernie Pyle, describing those tens of thousands of young men who crossed the "ageless and indifferent" sea of the English Channel, searched in vain for a word to describe what they were fighting for. And finally he concluded that they were at least fighting for each other.

You and I leave here today to meet our separate responsibilities, to protect our Nation's vital interests by peaceful means if possible, by resolute action if necessary. And we go forth confident of support and success because we know that we are working and fighting for each other and for all those men and women all over the globe who are determined to be free.


Class History:

The Class of 1960 entered the U. S. Naval Academy in June 1956 1,064 strong. After Plebe year, 900 remained. At that time there were 24 Companies in six Battalions in six wings of Bancroft hall. During our time in Annapolis, Dewey Basin, which had housed our “knockabouts”, was filled in with dredge from the Severn to become Dewey Field.

When we were graduated, it was at the end of eight years of peace and prosperity under then President Dwight David Eisenhower. By the end of the year, John F. Kennedy had been elected and in his inaugural speech he challenged us all by saying “Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country”. Little did any of us at that time realize how fitting these words were to become for the Class of 1960.

Soon after graduation came the Cuban Missile Crisis which many historians believe brought us to the brink of a nuclear war. Most classmates on the East Coast were part of a huge show of force steaming toward Cuba, when, fortunately, then Russian President Nikita Khrushchev backed down.

The years from 1963-1975 were our involvement in the Vietnam War and took far too many of our classmates lives. During this period the Class of 1960 lost six classmates in this conflict whose names all appear in Memorial Hall, at the Navy Marine Corps Memorial Stadium, or on the Vietnam Memorial in Washington, DC. Additionally in November 1969, the USS Roark was launched, named after Bill Roark, one of our classmates killed in Vietnam.

The rest of our careers were spent in typical Naval or Marine Corps Officer style: six to eleven month deployments, manning nuclear subs and surface combatants, flying all types of combat aircraft, Pentagon assignments, living overseas in myriad countries, and serving as Company and Battalion Officers back at the Academy. Many of our classmates became Commanding Officers of our seagoing ships and aircraft squadrons and others commanded critical shore stations.

The result of this dedication to honor, service, and country resulted in the Class of 1960 being selected to two Admirals, three Vice Admirals and a Marine Lt. General, 17 Rear Admirals, and one Commodore in the Philippine Navy. These classmates are as follows:

ADM Henry G. Chiles, JR, USN ADM Richard C. Macke, USN

Three Stars:

VADM Edward W. Clexton, JR. USN VADM Michael C. Colley, USN

VADM Raymond P. Ilg, USN LTGEN William M. Keys, USMC

RADM Donald V. Boecker, USN RADM Peter G. Chabot, USN

RADM John S. Claman, USN RADM George W. Davis VI, USN

RADM Vance H. Fry, SC, USNR RADM Raymond G. Jones, USN

RADM James R. Lang, USN RADM Alexander S. Logan, USNR

RADM Thomas A. Meinicke, USN RADM Paul W. Parcells, USN

RADM Thomas D. Paulsen, USN RADM Luther F. Schriefer, USN

RADM Grant A. Sharp, USN RADM John F. Shaw, USN

RADM Raynor A. K. Taylor, USN RADM Robert E. Traister, USN

RADM Harvey D. Weatherson, SC, USN

COMO Carlos L. Agustin, Philippine Navy

Service Time:

The Class of 1960 graduated 797 members of the class on June 8, 1960. From this group 648 into the Navy, 63 into the Marine Corps, 58 into the Air Force, and 16 into the Army. Additionally there were seven Foreign National students graduated (2 from Philippines, 2 from Panama, 1 from Argentina, 1 from Ecuador, and 1 from Cuba) and five who were Non Physically Qualified. One third of the Class remained in service for a full career of 20 years or more.

Support to the Naval Academy:

For the 25th anniversary of graduation, the Class dedicated the Class of 1960 Memorial which is now seaward of the Commodore Uriah P. Levy Jewish Chapel. The Memorial is a 48” X 50” blue stone plaza, surrounded by a granite sitting wall, with entrances at the four points of the compass. The center fountain area contains three engraved stones with the Class of 1960 crest, a graduation message to the American people, and inscribed sayings by John Paul Jones and President John F. Kennedy.

For the 45th anniversary of graduation, the Class raised over $3 million to endow a Distinguished Visiting Professorship in National Security Affairs in perpetuity.

Also in 2005 the Class dedicated a Class Arch at the Navy Marine Corps Memorial Stadium in honor of those classmates who fought and died in the service of our country.

Class Organization:

The Class is directed by a Class Board consisting of the four Class Officers and six Battalion representatives chosen by the respective Company representatives. Class Officers are elected every five years.


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Staubach was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, the only child of Elizabeth (née Smyth) and Robert Staubach. [3] [4] He is of partial German descent, and grew up in Silverton, a northeastern suburb of Cincinnati. [5] He was a Boy Scout as a youth, [6] attended St. John the Evangelist Catholic School, and graduated from the Catholic high school Purcell High School in Cincinnati (now named Purcell Marian High School) in 1960.

After one year at New Mexico Military Institute in Roswell, Staubach entered the U.S. Naval Academy in 1961, and played quarterback for the Midshipmen. As a third-class midshipman (sophomore) in 1962, he got his first opportunity to play in the third game of the season, against the University of Minnesota on October 6. He relieved starter Ron Klemick as the Minnesota defense, led by Bobby Bell and Carl Eller, was stifling in its 21–0 victory. Staubach was 0–2 passing and was sacked twice for -24 yards.

A week later, playing against Cornell University, with the offense failing, Hall of Fame coach Wayne Hardin decided to put Staubach into the game to see if he could improve the team's offense. He led Navy to six touchdowns, throwing for 99 yards, and two touchdowns while running for 88 yards and another score as Navy won 41–0. [7]

A few weeks later, Staubach started again in the famous Army–Navy game. President John F. Kennedy (himself a former naval officer), who just 37 days earlier had negotiated the end of the Cuban Missile Crisis, attended the game, performing the coin toss. Staubach led the team to a 34–14 upset over Army, throwing for two touchdowns and running for another.

In his second class (junior) season of 1963, he earned the Heisman Trophy, Maxwell Award, and the Walter Camp Memorial Trophy [8] while leading the Midshipmen to a 9–1 regular season record and a final ranking of No. 2 in the nation. He appeared on the cover of Time in October he would also have been on the cover of Life magazine's November 29, 1963 issue, but for the assassination of President Kennedy. [9] [10]

On New Year's Day, the Midshipmen lost the national championship to the No. 1 team, the University of Texas, in the 1964 Cotton Bowl. Earlier that season, Staubach led Navy to a 35–14 road victory in its annual rivalry with Notre Dame. [11] Navy did not beat Notre Dame again until 2007, 43 years later.

During three seasons at Navy, Staubach completed 292 of 463 passes with 18 touchdowns and 19 interceptions, while gaining a school-record 4,253 yards of total offense. Staubach is the last player from a military academy to win the Heisman Trophy. As a senior in 1964, he injured his left heel in the opening game victory over Penn State and missed the next four games, [12] and Navy finished the season at 3–6–1.

The Naval Academy retired Staubach's jersey number (12) during his graduation ceremony after his senior season. In 1981, Staubach was enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame. In 2007 Staubach was ranked No. 9 on ESPN's Top 25 Players In College Football History list.

Statistics Edit

Year Comp Att Comp % Passing TD
1962 67 98 68.4 966 7
1963 107 161 66.5 1,474 7
1964 119 204 58.3 1,131 4
Total 293 463 193.2 3,571 18

His collegiate football career completed, Staubach closed out his Academy sports career as captain of the Academy's 1965 baseball team. [13]

During his junior year at the Naval Academy, Staubach's color-blindness was detected and he was commissioned directly into the Supply Corps, which did not necessitate being able to tell the difference between red (port) and green (starboard) lights or to discern the color differences in electrical circuitry. [14]

After graduating from the Naval Academy in June 1965, [15] Staubach could have requested an assignment in the United States, but he chose to volunteer for a one-year tour of duty in South Vietnam. He served as a Supply Corps officer for the Navy at the Chu Lai Base Area until 1967. Staubach supervised 41 enlisted men. [16]

Staubach returned from South Vietnam in September 1967, [17] and spent the rest of his naval career in the United States. He played football on various service teams to prepare for his future career in the National Football League. During his tour at the naval air station in Pensacola, Florida, he quarterbacked the Goshawks, a team consisting of fellow U.S. Navy officers like himself, and played games against college football teams. He had access to the Dallas Cowboys playbook, and the Goshawks defeated many of the college teams they played against.

Staubach was a tenth-round "future" selection in the 1964 NFL Draft by the Cowboys. The NFL allowed the Cowboys to draft him one year before his college eligibility was over (because he was four years out of high school), although due to his four-year military commitment, he would not play professionally until 1969 as a 27-year-old rookie. [18] He was also drafted by the Kansas City Chiefs in the 16th round (122nd choice overall) of the 1964 American Football League Draft, also with a future selection. [19]

While still in the Navy during 1968, he went to the Cowboys' rookie camp, using most of his annual military leave. [17] During 1969, Staubach resigned his naval commission just in time to join the Cowboys training camp. The Cowboys won the first NFC title in 1970 with Craig Morton starting at quarterback, but lost to the Baltimore Colts in Super Bowl V, losing by three points on a last-second field goal.

In 1971, Morton began the season as the starter, but after a loss to the New Orleans Saints, Staubach assumed the role. However, in a game against the Chicago Bears during the seventh week of that season, coach Tom Landry alternated Staubach and Morton on each play, sending in the quarterbacks with the play call from the sideline. Dallas gained almost 500 yards of offense but committed seven turnovers that resulted in a 23–19 loss to a mediocre Bears squad that dropped the Cowboys to 4–3 for the season, two games behind the Washington Redskins in the NFC East race.

Staubach assumed the full-time quarterbacking duties in a week-eight victory over the St. Louis Cardinals and led the Cowboys to 10 consecutive victories, including their first Super Bowl victory, 24–3 over the Miami Dolphins in Super Bowl VI in January 1972. He was named the game's MVP, completing 12 out of 19 passes for 119 yards and two touchdowns and rushing for 18 yards. After the season, he negotiated his own contract, a three-year deal at about $75,000 per year. [20]

In 1972, Staubach missed most of the season with a separated shoulder, but he relieved Morton in a divisional playoff against the San Francisco 49ers and threw two touchdown passes in the last 90 seconds to win 30–28. With that performance, he won back his regular job and did not relinquish it again during his career.

Staubach led the Cowboys to a second Super Bowl win in the 1977 season. He threw for 183 yards and a touchdown, with no interceptions, in Dallas' 27–10 victory in Super Bowl XII over the Denver Broncos, led by his former teammate Morton. Staubach also led the Cowboys to appearances in Super Bowl X and Super Bowl XIII, where they lost to the Pittsburgh Steelers both times by a total of eight points.

Staubach's offensive teammates included standout receivers "Bullet" Bob Hayes, Lance Alworth, Drew Pearson and Golden Richards, tight ends Mike Ditka, Billy Joe Dupree and Jackie Smith, tackle Rayfield Wright and running backs Robert Newhouse, Calvin Hill and Tony Dorsett. Dorsett, Hayes and Wright are in the Hall of Fame, as are Alworth, Ditka and Smith (although those three were all with the Cowboys only at the end of their careers).

In his final NFL season of 1979, Staubach scored career highs in completions (267), passing yards (3,586) and touchdown passes (27), with just 11 interceptions. He retired at the conclusion of the season in order to protect his long-term health, declining the Cowboys' offer for two more seasons. He suffered 20 concussions in his playing career, including six in which he said he was "knocked out". After suffering two concussions in 1979, a doctor at Cornell told Staubach that while his brain tests were fine at the moment, another concussion could have life-altering consequences. [21] He chose to retire and was succeeded as the Cowboys starting quarterback by Danny White. [22]

Overall, Staubach finished his 11 NFL seasons with 1,685 completions for 22,700 yards and 153 touchdowns, with 109 interceptions. He also gained 2,264 rushing yards and scored 21 touchdowns on 410 carries. For regular-season games, he had a .750 winning percentage. Staubach recorded the highest passer rating in the NFL in four seasons (1971, 1973, 1978, 1979) and led the league with 23 touchdown passes in 1973. He was an All-NFC choice five times and selected to play in six Pro Bowls (1971, 1975–1979). [19]


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Did not graduate from college Edit

    (Although the death of Washington's father ended his formal schooling, he received a surveyor's certificate from the College of William and Mary. Washington believed strongly in formal education, and his will left money and/or stocks to support three educational institutions.) [1] (attended the College of William and Mary, but dropped out to fight in the Revolutionary War) (attended college, but never received a degree) (founded the University at Buffalo) (had only about a year of formal schooling of any kind) (no formal schooling of any kind) (attended Allegheny College, but did not graduate also attended Albany Law School, but also did not graduate) (went to business college and law school, but did not graduate)

Undergraduate Edit

    (withdrew)
    (transferred to Princeton University)
    (transferred to the University of Pennsylvania)
    (transferred to United States Naval Academy)
    (transferred to Georgia Institute of Technology)
    (withdrew)
    (transferred to Williams College)
    (transferred to Princeton University)
    (withdrew)
    (transferred to Columbia University)
    (transferred to Harvard University)
    (withdrew)
    (transferred to Harvard University)

Additional undergraduate information Edit

Some presidents attended more than one institution. George Washington never attended college, though The College of William & Mary did issue him a surveyor's certificate. [2] Two presidents have attended a foreign college at the undergraduate level: John Quincy Adams at Leiden University and Bill Clinton at the University of Oxford (John F. Kennedy intended to study at the London School of Economics, but failed to attend as he fell ill before classes began.)

Three presidents have attended the United States Service academies: Ulysses S. Grant and Dwight D. Eisenhower graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, while Jimmy Carter graduated from the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. No presidents have graduated from the United States Coast Guard Academy or the much newer U.S. Air Force Academy. Eisenhower also graduated from the Army Command and General Staff College, Army Industrial College and Army War College. These were not degree granting institutions when Eisenhower attended, but were part of his professional education as a career soldier.

Graduate school Edit

A total of 18 presidents attended some form of graduate school (including professional schools). Among them, nine presidents received a graduate degree during their lifetimes two more received graduate degrees posthumously.

Business school Edit

Political science Edit

Medical school Edit

Law school Edit

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    (withdrew JD awarded posthumously in 2008, Class of 1882) (withdrew JD awarded posthumously in 2008, Class of 1907)
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    (transferred)
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Several presidents who were lawyers did not attend law school, but became lawyers after independent study under the tutelage of established attorneys. [3] Some had attended college before beginning their legal studies, and several studied law without first having attended college. Presidents who were lawyers but did not attend law school include: John Adams Thomas Jefferson James Madison James Monroe John Quincy Adams Andrew Jackson Martin Van Buren John Tyler James K. Polk Millard Fillmore James Buchanan Abraham Lincoln James A. Garfield Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison and Calvin Coolidge.

Presidents who were admitted to the bar after a combination of law school and independent study include Franklin Pierce Chester A. Arthur William McKinley and Woodrow Wilson.


Presidents bring inspiration to Annapolis for the Naval Academy commencement

Before President Donald Trump's scheduled address at the Naval Academy commencement ceremony on May 25, here's a look at memorable words from former presidents who spoke to graduating midshipmen:

President Barack Obama — 2013

"We need your honor — that inner compass that guides you, not when the path is easy and obvious, but when it's hard and uncertain that tells you the difference between that which is right and that which is wrong.

"Perhaps it will be a moment when you think nobody is watching. But never forget that honor, like character, is what you do when nobody is looking. More likely it will be when you're in the spotlight, leading others — the men and women who are looking up to you to set an example."

President Obama — 2009

"These Americans have embraced the virtues that we need most right now: self-discipline over self-interest work over comfort and character over celebrity. After an era when so many institutions and individuals have acted with such greed and recklessness, it's no wonder that our military remains the most trusted institution in our nation."

President George W. Bush — 2005

"Show courage and not just on the battlefield. Pursue the possibilities others tell you do not exist. This advice comes with a warning: If you challenge established ways of thinking, you will face opposition. Believe me, I know, I've lived in Washington for the past 4 years. The opponents of change are many, and its champions are few, but the champions of change are the ones who make history."

President George W. Bush — 2001

"No one made you come here. No one made you stay. And no one made you to subject yourself to a code of honor and a life of discipline. But you did."

President Bill Clinton — 1998

"In a free society, the purpose of public service — in or out of uniform — is to provide all citizens with the freedom and opportunity to live their own dreams. So when you return from an exhausting deployment or just a terrible day, never forget to cherish your loved ones, and always be grateful that you have been given the opportunity to serve, to protect for yourselves and for your loved ones and for your fellow Americans the precious things that make life worth living and freedom worth defending."

President Clinton — 1994

"Lately, there have been a number of books written, not about you, of course, but about your generation that says that so many people your age are afflicted with a sense of fatalism and cynicism, a sort of Generation X that believes America's greatest days are behind us and there are no great deeds left to be done. Well, this class, this very class is a rebuke to those cynics of any age."

President George H.W. Bush — 1992

"More than once this century, America has proved its mettle. More than once, we've come late to conflict and turned back mortal threats to freedom. But as a Nation, we have yet to prove that we can lead when there is no enemy on the doorstep. We have proved and proved again we can win the war. Now we must wage the peace."

President Ronald Reagan — 1985

"There are some who analyze world events who operate under the assumption that the United States and the Soviet Union are morally equivalent. This reasoning does a great disservice to our forefathers and all the brave individuals throughout our history who have fought and died to keep this country free. The United States is a democratic nation of free people. We are a far more moral and decent land than any totalitarian state, and we should be proud of it."

President Jimmy Carter — 1978 (the only Naval Academy graduate to be president)

"We must avoid excessive swings in the public mood in our country — from euphoria when things are going well, to despair when they are not from an exaggerated sense of compatibility with the Soviet Union, to open expressions of hostility."

President Richard Nixon — 1974

"In our era, American isolation could easily lead to global desolation. Whether we like it or not, the alternative to detente is a runaway nuclear arms race, a return to constant confrontation, and a shattering setback to our hopes for building a new structure of peace in the world."

President John F. Kennedy — 1963

"Any man who may be asked in this century what he did to make his life worth while, I think can respond with a good deal of pride and satisfaction: 'I served in the United States Navy.' "

President Dwight D. Eisenhower — 1958

"Pessimism must not cloud our thinking or weaken our resolute endeavors. Rather, as the danger rises with frightening speed, it is for each of us — every person of understanding — more intensively to dedicate his best efforts to the solution of this all-embracing problem."

President Franklin Roosevelt — 1938

"No matter whether your specialty be naval science, or medicine, or the law, or teaching, or the church, or civil service, or business, or public service — remember that you will never reach the top and stay at the top unless you are well-rounded in your knowledge of all the other factors in modern civilization that lie outside of your own special profession."

President Woodrow Wilson — 1914

"Your profession is only one of the many activities which are meant to keep the world straight and to keep the energy in its blood and in its muscle. We are all of us in this world, as I understand it, to set forward the affairs of the whole world, though we play a special part in that great function."

President Theodore Roosevelt — 1905

"I am not surprised that you who graduate from this institution should make the kind of men that as a rule you do make afterward should show the qualities of courage, of lofty fidelity to duty, of devotion to the flag, and of farsighted preparedness to meet possible future emergencies."

President Theodore Roosevelt — 1902

"A battleship cannot be improvised. It takes years to build. And we must learn that it is exactly as true that the skill of the officers and men in handling a battleship aright can likewise never be improvised that it must spring from use and actual sea service, and from the most careful, zealous and systematic training."


Naval Academy Class of 1967 reflects on time as midshipmen

ANNAPOLIS, Md. (AP) - The handsome young president told the midshipmen to stand at ease - none of them did.

“Perhaps the plebes will. Did you explain that to them?” President John F. Kennedy joked to the Naval Academy leadership. “That comes later in the course.”

Most of the mids standing in Tecumseh Court on the hot August day in 1963 were plebes - they didn’t want to do anything that got them in trouble. Even if the orders came from the commander-in-chief.

Kennedy told the Class of 1967 that if he was a young man in 1963, he couldn’t think of a better place to begin his career than at a military academy.

“And any man who may be asked in this century what he did to make his life worthwhile, I think can respond with a good deal of pride and satisfaction: ‘I served in the United States Navy,’” he said.

Kennedy’s death three months later would be the first of many pivotal, history-making moments defining the 1960s: civil rights, voting rights, Martin Luther King Jr., “The Feminine Mystique,” the pill, the Summer of Love, “sex, drugs and rock ‘n’ roll” and Vietnam. When 1967 Naval Academy graduates reflect on their class, as they did together this week on the eve of Commissioning Week, they remember living in changing times while living inside a “bubble.”

“We grew up in a cauldron of change,” said Dave Church, president of the Class of 1967.

While students on college campuses across the country protested for free speech, experimented with drugs and listened to Bob Dylan, The Beatles and The Beach Boys in their dorm rooms, the same couldn’t be said for Naval Academy midshipmen in the 1960s. (The class’s song was “We Gotta Get Out of This Place” by The Animals and notoriously annoyed the commandant at the time. It’s now required to be played at all class reunions.)

Mids’ lives were based on what was going on inside of the Yard, Church said. Unlike now, there weren’t many restaurants or bars in downtown Annapolis. Church recalls a greasy sub shop, where midshipmen could eat high caloric sandwiches and play on pinball machines.

“Even today, it’s a hard place to be, but it’s a great place to be from,” he said. “Annapolis is a sleepy, little waterman town. You didn’t go down there as a midshipman.”

Liberty for the mids was limited, and they were often required to attend sporting or academic events on Saturdays, said Linton Wells, a 󈦣 alumnus. Other former midshipmen recalled watching movies on the Yard on Saturday nights.

“We were all kept on a short tether,” Wells said.

With limited radios and televisions, the mids learned most of the news from reading The Capital or national newspapers. Alumnus Mike Singleton said mids were required to talk about an article they read every day in class. That’s where he learned about the Gulf of Tonkin and the rising tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

But for alumni like former Navy football player Calvin Huey, many of the nation’s current events stayed outside of the academy’s walls.

Huey was one of the two black midshipmen in the class and was one of about 10 black midshipmen who attended the academy between 1963 and 1967. When the civil rights movement began to build in 󈦟, Huey said he was too focused on doing well at the academy.

He didn’t learn about the March on Washington until Christmas break, almost six months later.

“In reality, I didn’t know what was going on in the black community,” he said. “You had to stay in the moment while you were there and know the things you had to know.”

Huey added he didn’t feel he was treated differently than other mids and credited being an athlete for why he had an easier time as a plebe.

When it came to the escalation of the Vietnam War, several of the alumni said they expected to be deployed after graduation - and many were.

Wells said he and his fellow midshipmen saw the Vietnam War in terms of the domino theory regarding communism in southeast Asia. But several alumni, especially those from small towns, said they didn’t have many friends against the war or come in contact with protests.

“The peak of disillusionment didn’t really come home to me as a midshipman,” Wells said. He did have a girlfriend during that time who was “very anti-war” and their differing mentalities did impact the relationship, he said.

When a handful of local 󈦣 graduates returned Wednesday, they could still recall the spot where Kennedy stood during their plebe summer. Many live in Annapolis, Washington, D.C., or Northern Virginia and frequently hold mini-reunions every year, including Army-Navy tailgates and I-Day picnics.

Several of the 󈦣 alumni will present the Class of 2017 graduates with the gold ensign and second lieutenant bars during graduation. Alumnus Jim McNeece said he still gets a lump in his throat when he thinks about his graduation, specifically the cheers right before the hat toss.

The brigade gives three cheers for those about to leave the academy, and the graduates give three cheers for those they’re leaving behind. To him, the moment represented his class’s journey as midshipmen.

“To look at where we started and look at all the stuff we’ve been through. And it was done,” he said. “Now we get on with this thing called life.”


This Islander helped recover the bodies of fallen Marines he’d hidden from the Japanese 60 years earlier

Posted On February 02, 2021 09:40:00

On August 18, 1942, U.S. Marine Corps Raiders assaulted Japanese positions on Makin Island (today known as Butaritari). The Raiders were a WWII-era elite unit trained for special amphibious light infantry combat. Their mission was to destroy Japanese installations and gather intelligence as well as divert attention from the landings on Guadalcanal. This small raid on a Japanese seaplane base was among the first American offensive operations of the Pacific War. It didn’t end well, and many of their bodies weren’t found for years.

The Raiders met strong resistance but killed a number of Japanese defenders, destroyed two ships, and took out two planes attempting to land in a nearby lagoon. All went well until it came time to be extracted via submarine. Mechanical problems and an unexpectedly strong surf kept 11 of the 18 extraction boats from beating the surf. Eventually, more would make it to the submarine but the raid would end with 18 Marines killed in action and 12 more missing. The raid failed to return any meaningful intel but it was a successful test of coastal raider tactics.

The Americans had to leave in such a hurry they were unable to take the bodies of the dead with them. They asked the Butaritari men on the island to bury the bodies of the dead so the Japanese couldn’t find them. Locals wound up burying the Marines after the U.S. withdrawal.

In 2000, U.S. Department of Defense search teams came looking for the bodies of the Marines because they received a tip from one of the then-teenagers who found the bodies on a coral island so long ago. Now an old man, he showed the search team where to look.

Fifty-eight years after the last living Marines were extracted from the atoll by submarine, the graves of the fallen were found. The graves were dug with respect and were intact according to the burial customs of the Butaritari. They were still clothed, complete with helmets, rifles, grenades, and dog tags. Marines in full dress blues arrived via C-130 and carried the flag-draped coffins from an island airstrip to accompany the remains as they were repatriated to the United States.

As the Marines carried the 19 Raiders aboard, the old Butaritari man who pointed out the gravesite began to sing the Marine Corps Hymn. The man didn’t speak English or even understand what he was saying, but the Marines taught him the song as a boy and he remembered it 60 years later.

The first enlisted Marine to receive the Medal of Honor during World War II was Clyde Thomason, who was killed at Makin Island. Thomason was repatriated with the others in 2000 while 11 of his fellow Marines remain missing.

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Naval Academy Class of 1967 reflects on time as midshipmen

ANNAPOLIS, Md. — The handsome young president told the midshipmen to stand at ease — none of them did.

"Perhaps the plebes will. Did you explain that to them?" President John F. Kennedy joked to the Naval Academy leadership. "That comes later in the course."

Most of the mids standing in Tecumseh Court on the hot August day in 1963 were plebes — they didn't want to do anything that got them in trouble. Even if the orders came from the commander-in-chief.

Kennedy told the Class of 1967 that if he was a young man in 1963, he couldn't think of a better place to begin his career than at a military academy.

"And any man who may be asked in this century what he did to make his life worthwhile, I think can respond with a good deal of pride and satisfaction: 'I served in the United States Navy,'" he said.

Kennedy's death three months later would be the first of many pivotal, history-making moments defining the 1960s: civil rights, voting rights, Martin Luther King Jr., "The Feminine Mystique," the pill, the Summer of Love, "sex, drugs and rock 'n' roll" and Vietnam. When 1967 Naval Academy graduates reflect on their class, as they did together this week on the eve of Commissioning Week, they remember living in changing times while living inside a "bubble."

"We grew up in a cauldron of change," said Dave Church, president of the Class of 1967.

In this Wednesday, May 17, 2017 photo, from left, Mike Singleton, John Craighill, Steve Phillips, Rick Davis, Tom Pritchett and Jim McNeece, members of the Naval Academy Class of 1967, which celebrates its 50th anniversary this year, pose for a photo in Annapolis, Md. Photo Credit: Meredith Newman/The Baltimore Sun via AP
While students on college campuses across the country protested for free speech, experimented with drugs and listened to Bob Dylan, The Beatles and The Beach Boys in their dorm rooms, the same couldn't be said for Naval Academy midshipmen in the 1960s. (The class's song was "We Gotta Get Out of This Place" by The Animals and notoriously annoyed the commandant at the time. It's now required to be played at all class reunions.)

Mids' lives were based on what was going on inside of the Yard, Church said. Unlike now, there weren't many restaurants or bars in downtown Annapolis. Church recalls a greasy sub shop, where midshipmen could eat high caloric sandwiches and play on pinball machines.

"Even today, it's a hard place to be, but it's a great place to be from," he said. "Annapolis is a sleepy, little waterman town. You didn't go down there as a midshipman."

Liberty for the mids was limited, and they were often required to attend sporting or academic events on Saturdays, said Linton Wells, a '67 alumnus. Other former midshipmen recalled watching movies on the Yard on Saturday nights.

"We were all kept on a short tether," Wells said.

With limited radios and televisions, the mids learned most of the news from reading The Capital or national newspapers. Alumnus Mike Singleton said mids were required to talk about an article they read every day in class. That's where he learned about the Gulf of Tonkin and the rising tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.

But for alumni like former Navy football player Calvin Huey, many of the nation's current events stayed outside of the academy's walls.

Huey was one of the two black midshipmen in the class and was one of about 10 black midshipmen who attended the academy between 1963 and 1967. When the civil rights movement began to build in '63, Huey said he was too focused on doing well at the academy.

He didn't learn about the March on Washington until Christmas break, almost six months later.

"In reality, I didn't know what was going on in the black community," he said. "You had to stay in the moment while you were there and know the things you had to know."

Huey added he didn't feel he was treated differently than other mids and credited being an athlete for why he had an easier time as a plebe.

When it came to the escalation of the Vietnam War, several of the alumni said they expected to be deployed after graduation — and many were.

Wells said he and his fellow midshipmen saw the Vietnam War in terms of the domino theory regarding communism in southeast Asia. But several alumni, especially those from small towns, said they didn't have many friends against the war or come in contact with protests.

"The peak of disillusionment didn't really come home to me as a midshipman," Wells said. He did have a girlfriend during that time who was "very anti-war" and their differing mentalities did impact the relationship, he said.

When a handful of local '67 graduates returned Wednesday, they could still recall the spot where Kennedy stood during their plebe summer. Many live in Annapolis, Washington, D.C., or Northern Virginia and frequently hold mini-reunions every year, including Army-Navy tailgates and I-Day picnics.

Several of the '67 alumni will present the Class of 2017 graduates with the gold ensign and second lieutenant bars during graduation. Alumnus Jim McNeece said he still gets a lump in his throat when he thinks about his graduation, specifically the cheers right before the hat toss.

The brigade gives three cheers for those about to leave the academy, and the graduates give three cheers for those they're leaving behind. To him, the moment represented his class's journey as midshipmen.

"To look at where we started and look at all the stuff we've been through. And it was done," he said. "Now we get on with this thing called life."


Watch the video: JFKS SPEECH AT THE. NAVAL ACADEMY IN ANNAPOLIS, MARYLAND JUNE 7, 1961