Australia Transportation - History

Australia Transportation - History



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AUSTRALIA- Military

Airports:
455 (2006)
Airports - with paved runways:
total: 311
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 133
914 to 1,523 m: 143
under 914 m: 13 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
total: 144
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 111
under 914 m: 15 (2006)
Heliports:
1 (2006)
Pipelines:
condensate/gas 546 km; gas 31,323 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km; oil 4,808 km; oil/gas/water 110 km (2006)
Railways:
total: 47,738 km
broad gauge: 4,015 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge: 28,662 km 1.435-m gauge (1,397 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 14,831 km 1.067-m gauge (2,462 km electrified)
dual gauge: 230 km dual gauge (2005)
Roadways:
total: 810,641 km
paved: 336,962 km
unpaved: 473,679 km (2004)
Waterways:
2,000 km (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling river systems) (2002)
Merchant marine:
total: 53 ships (1000 GRT or over) 1,361,000 GRT/1,532,874 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 17, cargo 4, chemical tanker 3, container 1, liquefied gas 4, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 6, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned: 17 (Canada 1, France 3, Germany 3, Japan 1, Netherlands 2, Norway 1, Philippines 1, UK 2, US 3)
registered in other countries: 34 (Antigua and Barbuda 1, Bahamas 2, Bermuda 3, Fiji 1, Hong Kong 1, Liberia 2, Marshall Islands 2, Netherlands 1, NZ 2, Panama 3, Portugal 1, Singapore 7, Tonga 1, UK 3, US 2, Vanuatu 2) (2006)
Ports and terminals:
Brisbane, Dampier, Fremantle, Gladstone, Hay Point, Melbourne, Newcastle, Port Hedland, Port Kembla, Port Walcott, Sydney


Australia’s transport heritage

BOASTING LITTLE MORE than a general store and a pub, Murrabit bears no resemblance to the thriving hub it was once envisioned to become. More than a century ago, the fledgling Riverina settlement was filled with promise. Situated on the banks of the Murray River in northern Victoria, it was surrounded by flat, grazing land that railway officials declared would “ultimately become studded with towns”. At the time, river and rail transport were flourishing and agricultural trade was booming. It was the heyday of the steam era.

Today, although Murrabit isn’t the bustling trade centre that civic planners hoped for, it is one of a number of towns in the Riverina that recall the age of rail. An all-steel rail bridge spans the Murray at Murrabit, one of many built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to link regional centres in southern NSW with those in Victoria, and it is a reminder of a time long past.

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In the early 1870s, Echuca was Australia’s busiest inland port. The Victorian town, situated on the banks of the Murray River, about 110km downstream of Murrabit, was the hub of Australia’s paddle-steamer trade. Freight was transported along the river to Echuca’s busy wharf, where it was unloaded and railed to Melbourne’s markets.

At the time, farmers in southern NSW were campaigning for a bridge over the Murray so they could transport their goods to market by rail over Echuca’s lines. In 1879, a 12m-high, all steelgirder rail crossing at Echuca linked the lines between the states and set off a flurry of bridge-funding bids by nearby shires. Tocumwal, NSW, was the next Riverina town to receive government funding. Its cast-iron bridge opened in April 1895, but at a cost of £19,635 (about $3.3 million today), cheaper designs and materials were sought for subsequent projects.

In 1887 the Victoria and NSW Public Works ministers met to discuss which towns along the Murray would benefit from a rail bridge. Swan Hill, Victoria, was next in line. The contract was awarded to civil engineer Percy Allan, who designed more than 550 NSW bridges during his distinguished career.

By the late 1870s, local businessmen claimed the Victorian township of Koondrook could eventually rival, or even surpass, Swan Hill. Their campaign for a bridge over the Murray to Barham was ignored until June 1900 when the punt collapsed, with the loss of a tractor belonging to farmer John Hackett’s. A delegation from the Victoria and NSW Public Works departments arrived the following week and approved a £10,345 ($xx) construction incorporating Percy Allan’s lift mechanism.

The citizens of Koondrook, and those of nearby Barham and Kerang, were granted a holiday on 10 April 1903 to witness the commencement of the bridge’s construction, and another for the official opening 19 months later. Although Swan Hill’s population numbers almost 10,000 today, and Koondrook’s is little more than 800, the town still takes pride in the bridge, which celebrated its centenary in October 2004.

Tooleybuc, in NSW, was connected to its Victorian neighbour Piangil in 1925. According to Richard Ball, Tooleybuc’s MP, it placed the town on the map. Murrabit experienced a similar boost. Early in the 20th century, the town was a small agricultural settlement known as Gonn Crossing.

In 1911 local farmers began petitioning for a bridge over the river so they could transport their produce to Kerang and so on to Melbourne. The Railway League projected the area would prosper and envisioned towns popping up all over the region. Their optimistic projections swayed the Border Railways Commission, and on 19 December 1925 the opening of an all-steel bridge at Gonn Crossing was celebrated with a gala ball.

The area soon became known as Murrabit and a railway station, post office, general store, butcher’s shop and church were soon built. But little more than a decade later, rail freight was superseded by road transport. One by one, Murrabit’s businesses closed. The rail line was shut down in 1961, and despite the Rail League’s optimistic projections, the grazing land surrounding Murrabit never found itself studded with towns.

Without the bridge, however, Murrabit wouldn’t be the place it is today, says local Jill Sutherland in her published history of the town: “The legacy the line left us in the form of the bridge is enormous. A cohesiveness of people, who live a stone’s throw away from each other, but with the river between, becomes possible.”


The Introduction of a Multi-Modal Bridge in Australia

The Eleanor Schonell Bridge was formally opened almost two months ahead of schedule in the city of Brisbane in the Australian state of Queensland. This 1,706-foot (520-meter)-long structure crosses the section of the Brisbane River between Brisbane’s inner suburb of Dutton Park and the St Lucia campus of the University of Queensland (UQ).

Campbell Newman, lord mayor of Brisbane from 2004 to 2011 (and premier of Queensland between 2012 and 2015), officiated at the dedication of the bridge. “The opening was marked with a family fun day of activities and entertainment,” noted a news release from UQ.

This bridge was the first one in Australia to be exclusively designed for shared use by bicyclists, pedestrians, and buses. Bicyclists and pedestrians were able to first make their way across the bridge on its opening day over the next several months, bus services began using the new structure as well.

The large-scale plans for this bridge have also involved energy conservation measures. These measures include the use of low-wattage lights on the bridge. In addition, a high-profile solar roof was installed to likewise help make the bridge more energy efficient. That roof’s panels feed electricity back into the supply authority grid this helps offset the power electricity used by the bridge at night. Due to the development of these energy-saving plans during the design and construction phases for the bridge, the structure became widely known as the “Green Bridge” prior to its inauguration. This name is still used by many people today when referring to the bridge.

The official name for the new bridge was announced by Newman on August 28, 2006. He had been given a short list of possible names by an independent panel of citizens that went through hundreds of choices suggested by the public. The new bridge’s namesake was a South African-born Australian educational scientist and Brisbane resident. Eleanor Schonell (1902-1962) achieved worldwide renown for her trailblazing work with children affected by dyslexia and cerebral palsy

On the day that the Eleanor Schonell Bridge made its formal debut, UQ vice-chancellor John Hay highlighted the significance of this structure for his university. He explained, “Eighty years ago, St Lucia was chosen as the site for establishing the university on the understanding the Brisbane City Council would agree to make the campus accessible with a bridge.”

Hay then noted, “Although the council has since provided bus and ferry services to and from UQ, the opening of the new bridge marks both the adherence to that promise and an unprecedented level of access to the campus. The bridge will bring the University closer to the surrounding community, opening the campus and its facilities to people living on the south side, while observing the University’s commitment to the environment.”


Transportation in Australia Explained: A Complete Guide

When it comes to transportation, Australia offers many great options. Whether you want to get around town on weekends or just want to travel, it is important to know how the transport system works in Australia.

The country offers extensive modes of transportations, ranging from trains, bicycles, buses, taxis to planes and trains. In this post, we will talk about Australian transportation in detail.

1. Common Modes of Transport in Australia:

1.1 Cycling/Biking

Most international students spend between $700 - $ 1500 per year on transport. This makes getting a bicycle an economical alternative. Students can either purchase a bike or even rent it. Here is the list of a few Australian cities that offer bike share schemes.

However, it is obligatory for a cyclist to wear a helmet, lights on the front and back of the bicycle, and a good lock to protect the bicycle from theft. Also, the cyclist needs to follow the road rules.

1.2 Buses and Coach

Buses are one of the most common and economical means of transport for international students in Australia. Most of these services can be easily operated from a reusable smart card system, but in some regional towns and cities, you can purchase tickets from the bus drivers directly.

Depending on the destination, you can also choose long-distance coach travel. This is another inexpensive option than train travel. Travel by coach is comfortable as most of the vehicles have onboard entertainment and restrooms. Some of the newer coaches even have Wifi and USB charger points.

To book a bus or a coach, you can visit websites like:

1.3 The Rail System in Australia

Subways and trains system in Australia connects to every part of the country. The large rail network in Australia comprises of more than 33,919 km of tracks. It is one of the easiest and convenient modes of transport in the country.

Popular rail service providers are:

Indian Pacific Sydney - Broken Hill - Adelaide - Kalgoorlie - Perth

The Ghan Adelaide - Alice Springs - Katherine - Darwin

NSW TrainLink Brisbane - Sydney - Melbourne

1.4 Taxis and Uber Services

For a comfortable long journey, the taxi is an excellent choice. Just like in most countries, taxis can be easily seen on the roadside. You can hire it by waving it down on the roadside. It is one of the best methods to move quickly around the city. Additionally, most cab companies in Australia have their own smartphone applications to calculate fares and book a taxi.


All in all, taxis can be an expensive and inconvenient option. So if possible, before taking a cab, use the Sydney public transport app to know the estimated price for your journey. Also, overseas visitors should keep in mind that taxi fares in Australia are non-negotiable. You have to pay the exact amount reflected on the meter.

Usually, taxis cost you more after 10 pm and the shift of drivers start at 3 PM and 3 am in most cities. If you want to book taxis to travel within Australia, then here are some taxi service providers that may help:

Alternatively, ride-sharing services such as Uber could be a much reliable and cheaper option. According to the Roy Morgan research, 22.9% of Australians (aged 14 and above) prefer an Uber compared with taxis (21.8%).

1.5 Airlines

Air travel covers the vast distances between the major cities in Australia, which ultimately saves time. For example, if you want to travel between Sydney and Perth, it will take approximately 5 hours. But if you travel between the same destinations by road, it will take 40 hours to 14 days, depending on the multiple stopovers you make while traveling. The 4 major airlines in Australia are:

2. Public Transport Websites & Smartphone Apps

Regardless of where you live in Australia, each territory has its own public transport website. You can check the transport websites of the state you reside in and explore the different public transport systems. Here is the list of public transport websites in each state and territory.

Australian Capital Territory - ACTION

Furthermore, most Australian transit authorities provide smartphone applications that help you travel around cities using public transport. The app enables you to access services like (reschedule, cancel, or avail late services), find out nearest bus stops, estimated arrival time, and plan your trip from anywhere and wherever you want to go.


3. Reusable Smart Card System

Smart Card technology is an excellent alternative to cash transactions, especially when it comes to the public Australia transport fare collection. It offers more efficient transport services to commuters and helps them to avoid long queues for tickets.

Also, the reusable smart card system makes it more convenient for transport service providers in Australia to process fare transactions.



Here are the capital cities in Australia that have implemented different reusable smart card system for their public transport services:

Sydney: Opal Card ticketing system, used on buses, trains, ferries, and trams.

Brisbane: Go Card electronic ticket, used on buses, trains, ferries, and trams.

Adelaide: MetroCARD electronic smart card, used on buses, trams, and trains.

Melbourne: Myki ticket, used to travel on trams, buses, and trains in Australia.

Canberra: MyWay ticketing system, used on light rail and buses.

Perth: SmartRider ticketing system, used on buses, trains, and ferries.

Darwin: Tap and Ride Card, used on buses.

Hobart: Greencard smart technology used on buses.


Note: To get more information on public transport smart cards, visit the smart card websites of each city.


4. Where to Purchase the Smart Cards


When you reach Australia, you can buy the smart cards at the international or domestic airport or train stations, depending on the city where you arrive.

You can also get the cards in different cities at the ferry wharves, bus stations, newsagents, supermarkets, 7-Eleven stores, convenience stores, vending machines, and pharmacies.

5. Advantages of Reusable Public Transport Cards

  • Online Account Management: You can easily manage your smart card online. Through your online account, you can view all your journeys, check your current balance, and see which mode of transportation you used.
  • Prepayment: This is one of the most significant benefits of using a smart card in Australia. Recharging your card or prepaying before you start your journey, makes it easy to travel around without having to stand in long queues for tickets and fumbling in your wallet looking for coins. Also, it is cheaper to pay for your journey in advance rather than paying for each time you travel.
  • Automatic Top-up: If the balance on your account is running low, the transit authority will instantly recharge your account through your credit card or debit card so that you can travel without any inconvenience. Automatic top-ups will only take place if you have permitted the transit authority during the sign-up process. If you decide not to avail the automated top-up service, you can always pay over the counter at different locations.
  • Offers and Discounts: Using Australia public transport card can provide you with several benefits, including discounted fares during off-peak travel hours, capped fares on weekends, and free travel when you have taken a specified number of journeys. You also get to use the same smart card on different modes of road transport in Australia.
  • More Convenient: Smart cards are extremely easy to use, all you have to do is &ldquotap on&rdquo and tap off&rdquo on card readers, placed at light rail stops, train stations, ferry wharves, and busses. Using smart cards helps you to save time and avoid ticket booths. If you are running late, you simply have to take out your card and tap on card readers.

Note: When you first reach Australia, you might have to use cash before getting a smart card. So make sure you are using smaller denominations like lower value notes or coins, as ticket booth operators or drivers are not pleased to take large notes.

6. Transport Concessions for International Students

The Australia transport authority also provides concessions to international students in each territory and state. Let us have a look at them:

Australian Capital Territory (ACT)

  • The ACT offers transport concessions to international students when they provide their official student identification card or when they successfully apply for a student concession card. To get detailed information about the concession cards offered by the ACT government, visit the Transport Canberra website.


Northern Territory (Australia)

  • If you are a primary school, middle school, or a senior school student in Northern Territory, you are allowed to travel for free if you present a valid student card. However, VET and university students only have access to unlimited travel for three hours after presenting a genuine student card and paying $1.00 on any scheduled bus service. You can get more information on this at NT&rsquos public transport website.

New South Wales (NSW)

  • International students in NSW are usually not offered student concessions. But, a few students with fully-funded scholarships provided by the Australian government can get transport concessions. It would be best if you directly get in touch with your education provider to get more information. You can also visit NSW transport to receive further details on getting around New South Wales and public transport in Sydney.

Western Australia

  • In Western Australia, international students who study full-time are entitled to road transport in Australia concessions. Within the metropolitan area of Perth, through Transperth public transport services, students can travel via train, bus or ferry network. Visit the Transperth website for more information about concession passes.



South Australia (SA)

  • All international students in South Australia can avail transport concessions after presenting their formal student identification cards. You can find more details on fares and other conditions at the Adelaide Metro website.


Tasmania (TAS)

  • Local students and international students living in Tasmania qualify for the same travel concessions. Visit the Tasmanian Government&rsquos Transport Discounts & Concessions website to view each concession in detail.


Queensland (QLD)

  • You are entitled to transport concessions if you are studying a full-time course at an educational institution in Queensland. The course you are studying should be approved by Centrelink for Abstudy, Austudy, or Youth Allowance purposes. You can visit the Translink website to get full information on transport fares in Queensland.

Victoria (VIC)

  • If you have refugee status, have come to Australia for an international exchange program, or have obtained an Australian Development Scholarship, you are eligible for a concession card in Victoria. You can talk to your education provider to get full details about public transport Victoria services. Also, you can check out the Study Melbourne website for exact details about road transport in Australia.

7. Transportation Services in Australia During Public Holidays

Public transport in Australia is less frequent, less available, or more expensive at different times all year round. On most public holidays, public transportation services are available on a Saturday or a Sunday based on transport in Australia timeline.

You can get more information regarding this at the transit authority&rsquos official website for the city you are living in. You can also find the details on their smartphone application.

8. Hygiene and Safety on Public Transport

Public transport systems in Australia offer clean, safe, and well-maintained services to commuters. These services are highly monitored to ensure that people receive the best public transport in Australia with top-notch facilities.

In Australia, you will never witness a sight where buses, trains in Australia, or other modes of transportation are overloaded with passengers.

You will find that buses, trains, and trams in Australia have a comfortable and modern design with air conditioning. Besides, terminals and stations are under 24-hour surveillance, making it extremely safe for commuters.

You will also see security guards at terminals and stations, ensuring safety at all times. All in all, the Australian government provides the best public transport in Australia, mainly designed to be convenient, efficient, and safe.

Australia offers a wide range of transport options to choose from. You can choose one as per your convenience, budget and travel without any hassle.


Australia Transportation - History

Since 1998 your premier resource for education in Australia.

You can purchase Rail passes for state or regionally travel. Railway systems have their own railway passes, but a lot allow traveling on multiple railway systems. Austrail- is an economy class pass that allows you to travel anywhere on the entire rail network. This pass includes all metropolitan systems. The Austrail pass has to be used over consecutive days. Durations include 14, 21, and 30 day travels plans. This pass must be purchased before you arrive and travel in Australia. Australian residents cannot purchase this pass. Austrail Flexipass - A flexible economy class travel pass with time ranges of 8, 15, 22, or 29 days within 6 months. The only real restriction is with the 8 day pass that does not allow you to travel between Adelaide/Perth or Adelaide/Alice Springs.

Transportation in Australia

The fact that Australia is home to some of the world&rsquos top universities is only one of the many reasons students from around the world choose to further their education in this diverse, intriguing country. With geography that ranges from barren deserts to tropical rainforests and an eclectic blend of cultures found throughout the country, learning and exploring outside of the classroom bring a whole new depth to the education that students studying in Australia will receive. To take full advantage of the range of experiences available during your stay, it is necessary for you to familiarize yourself with local, regional and cross-country options for transportation in Australia. This will allow you to determine the options that are most affordable and convenient for each excursion.

The type of transportation that will best suit your needs depends on the type of travel you plan to embark on while in Australia. For example, while renting a car may be the best option for weekend road trips exploring parts of Australia&rsquos vast Outback, urban adventures in one of Australia&rsquos major cities can be easily undertaken using only public transportation. It is important to remember that Australia encompasses 2,988,902 square miles (7,741,220 kilometers) and that you should expect to travel great distances to go from one major city to the next.

Arriving in Australia


Prior to partaking in any type of travel within Australia, you first have to get there. This is almost always accomplished by plane, although it is possible to arrive by boat as well. Major airports are located in Sydney, Brisbane, Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth, Hobart, Cairns and Darwin, with each of these destinations serviced by major airlines generally connecting from the U.S.A., Europe or Asia.

If your university is located in your city of arrival, you will likely find a taxi or bus to be the most convenient means of transport between the airport and your campus. Before planning your ground transportation, check with your school to determine if it is one of the many that provide arrival services to new students, including having a representative meet you at the airport or arranging for a shuttle service to campus.

Plane Travel in Australia


Due to the great distance between major cities and different regions of the country, plane travel is a popular option for transportation in Australia. While this option will not allow you to enjoy a scenic journey along the coast or through the wilderness, it will allow you arrive much more quickly than with other transportation options. If you plan to travel long distance while in Australia, search online for deals on domestic flights. Students can often find affordable fares on Jetstar, although Qantas and Virgin Blue are also good options.

Rail Travel in Australia


If your travel schedule allows more time for transportation, you may want to consider traveling by rail. Rail transportation in Australia is well-established and is a cost-effective means for traveling within each state, as well as across the country. Choosing to travel by rail will allow you to enjoy a scenic journey while en route to your destination, but it will take considerably longer to arrive than traveling by plane.

There are a variety of rail passes available that allow for multiple travel dates for up to 90 days, depending on the pass you choose. Rail passes are a great option for students who plan to travel frequently and can assist you in saving money on both long and short journeys.

Bus Travel in Australia


Students who choose bus travel for long journeys are generally more concerned about cost than a quick arrival. While traveling by bus can be a bit slow and tedious, it does allow you to enjoy the scenery in comfort while on the way to your destination. This cost-effective option for transportation in Australia is an excellent choice for getting around town and short journeys, and is a viable option for traveling between major cities if you are not on a tight schedule.

Car Travel in Australia


Renting or purchasing a car during your stay in Australia provides the most freedom and convenience of any option for transportation in Australia. Opting for car travel allows you to choose how quickly or leisurely you arrive at your destination and allows you to explore Australia unfettered by train schedules and bus routes.

Whether you choose to rent a car for a weekend drive up the coast or a week camping in the bush, you will find that this convenient option allows you to add impromptu side trips, explore villages and see a different side of Australia that is not necessarily found along major roads between cities.

The key to convenient transportation in Australia is to plan ahead. Know your options, establish your travel budget and determine the amount of time you can allow for transportation. Then, make sure you plan for transportation to and from your destination, as well as transportation during your stay.


Convict transportation ends

In 1849 the British Government authorised the conversion of Western Australia from a free settlement to a penal colony.

On 9 January 1868 the convict transport Hougoumont arrived at the port of Fremantle. On board were 269 convicts, the last to be sent to Western Australia.

The ship&rsquos arrival marked the end of 80 years of continuous penal transportation to the Australian continent.

Inquirer and Commercial News, Perth, 5 Feb 1868:

In future it is presumed that all who come to augment our population shall be virtuous. Henceforth, our neighbours [South Australians] cannot assume that stern and threatening attitude they thought it wise to present to the Home authorities and to ourselves.

Settling Western Australia

Since the establishment of a penal colony in New South Wales in 1788, Australia had served Britain as a prison and a means of offloading excess people during a period of rapid population growth, rising social and political instability and regular economic downturns.

While a significant portion of Australia&rsquos population were themselves convicts or descended from convicts, and most had settled down to become law-abiding citizens, free settlers increasingly took an unfavourable view of convicts. They saw them as, at best, an often problematic source of labour and, at worst, a dangerous moral blight tainting their own and their colony&rsquos reputation.

In contrast to the eastern colonies, the settlements in Western and South Australia were intended to be convict free.

The first settlers arrived at the Swan River in 1829, three years after a small military outpost had been established at King George&rsquos Sound, now Albany, to head off any attempt by the French at taking over the western third of Australia.

The decision to found the colony was based on what can fairly be said was misleading reporting by Captain James Stirling who explored the area in 1827 and later became the colony&rsquos first governor.

Having heard the lands of the Swan described as lush, fertile and productive, many settlers were appalled when they found themselves practising subsistence agriculture on what was little more than sand.

The economic depression of the 1840s &ndash felt across all the Australian colonies &ndash affected Western Australia very badly. The fledgling colony did not yet have sufficient population, capital or markets to weather the downturn.

The impact of a change in the official price of land was also severe, and a small group of pastoralists associated with the York Agricultural Society began to lobby for transportation, claiming it would supply a free source of labour that would solve many of the colony&rsquos problems. Many in the colony disagreed with them, and initial proposals were defeated.

It was not until there was a change of governor that these proposals found a more sympathetic ear. Governor Fitzgerald, after whom Geraldton is named, liaised with London, which in May 1849 authorised the conversion of Western Australia to a penal colony.

Transportation to Australia ends

The news did not go down well in the eastern colonies. Opposition to transportation had been gathering in New South Wales from the 1830s, and received a boost when a friend of William Charles Wentworth &ndash Robert Wardell &ndash was murdered by a convict in 1834.

Opposition to penal transportation become so serious an issue that in 1837 the British Government established a commission of inquiry headed by Sir William Molesworth.

Molesworth, a Radical Member of Parliament, was sympathetic to causes such as colonial self-government and the abolition of slavery, and his commitment to these two causes had a significant impact on how he conducted the commission.

Molesworth&rsquos inquiry looked into the effectiveness of transportation as a deterrent to crime, its moral impact on the colonies and what, if any, changes should be made. He found the system of assigning convicts to individuals was iniquitous, and recommended its abolition. He also condemned flogging.

Molesworth&rsquos portrayal of colonial society as violent and morally suspect outraged colonists, but his report was favourably received by the Prime Minister Lord Melbourne&rsquos administration and in 1840 transportation to New South Wales ceased.

However, transportation continued in Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania, and commenced in Western Australia in 1850.

In Convict Fremantle: A Place of Promise and Punishment, Michal Bosworth notes that Swan River colonists had already flirted with transportation when they accepted juvenile offenders, known as the Parkhurst boys, between 1842 and 1849.

The arrival of adult male convicts in 1850 and their labour over 20 years did have a significant economic impact on the struggling colony. They constructed essential infrastructure, such as the road from Albany to Perth and the Fremantle Bridge connecting Fremantle with the road to Perth.

Convict labour built many of what are now Western Australia&rsquos most treasured heritage sites such as Government House and the Perth Town Hall, and significant sites in Fremantle such as the Fremantle Prison and the Fremantle Arts Centre, formerly the lunatic asylum.


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Im an Aussie so having rules gets in my craw, but it has become apparent we need a few here if this page is to continue.
The greater amount of people get what this page was intended for I love your work, but some of you have missed the point completely.

How about these as guidelines rather than rules, because somethings may be hard to decide upon.

… Ещё 1. No advertising for singles (we get heaps of these weekly)
2. No advertising for businesses, relevant charities and not for profit, go for your life.(we get a lot of people who want to get their product or business seen so they spam us)
3. Aussie History only unless something is really special.(Im sure your country has a great past, please start your own page and tell your story)
4. Please no politics or religion
5 .Play nice

Kings Forman поделился публикацией.

The Trailer for the 1954 Movie, Back of Beyond on, Now the Movie is on Netflix.

Kings Forman ‎old Australian Truck Driver’s Group

The Trailer for the 1954 Movie, Back of Beyond on, Now the Movie is on Netflix. I believe this movie won Academy Award at the time.

Kings Forman поделился публикацией.

Lisa Clarke just posted this photo, now that is a caravan I like.

Kings Forman ‎old Australian Truck Driver’s Group

Lisa Clarke just posted this photo, now that is a caravan I like.

Kings Forman поделился публикацией.

Paul Goodwin posted this on a Non Trucking Group. ---- I was surprise and delighted when I saw Netflix had put the 1954 Movie, Back of Beyond on the viewing list. This a true blue, riggi didge, fair dinkum trip … Ещё back in time , and if you were brought up in this time, pangs of nostalgia and pride will burst from your heart and memory. This is a story about the Tom Kruse who meant more to the people he delivered vital mail and supplies to than a bloke with a similar name who shows up in the movies. Listen to the " Cultured Australian" spoken by the narrator. It's a shame it's not in colour. It's black and white, but then I also get sentimental about sepia photos. While melbourne was preparing for the 1956 Olympics, Tom was out there making dust and battling sand dunes.

Kings Forman ‎old Australian Truck Driver’s Group

Paul Goodwin posted this on a Non Trucking Group. ---- I was surprise and delighted when I saw Netflix had put the 1954 Movie, Back of Beyond on the viewing list. This a true blue, riggi didge, fair dinkum trip … Ещё back in time , and if you were brought up in this time, pangs of nostalgia and pride will burst from your heart and memory. This is a story about the Tom Kruse who meant more to the people he delivered vital mail and supplies to than a bloke with a similar name who shows up in the movies. Listen to the " Cultured Australian" spoken by the narrator. It's a shame it's not in colour. It's black and white, but then I also get sentimental about sepia photos. While melbourne was preparing for the 1956 Olympics, Tom was out there making dust and battling sand dunes.


Politics

All the colonies except Western Australia gained responsible self-government. New South Wales led the way when an imperial act of 1842 created a two-thirds elective legislature. The Australian Colonies Government Act (1850) extended this situation to Victoria, South Australia, and Tasmania. The act made allowance for further revision of the colonial constitutions, and in 1855–56 this took effect in the four colonies, Tasmania then abandoning the name Van Diemen’s Land. Queensland followed after its separation from New South Wales. All had bicameral legislatures, with ministers responsible to the lower houses, which by 1860, except in Tasmania, were elected on a near-democratic basis (all adult non-Aboriginal men were eligible to vote). In Victoria and South Australia the secret ballot was introduced in 1856 (see Australian ballot).

While the imperial power thus responded to colonial cries for self-rule, on the way there were some tense moments. Virtually all colonists abhorred paying taxes for imperial purposes, including the costs of maintaining convicts locally a good many disliked convictism altogether most disputed the imperial right to dictate land policy and many, especially in South Australia, disapproved of the imperial government’s directing that aid be given to religious denominations.

From the outset of the period, the imperial government fostered a freer market in land and labour throughout the colonies, not merely in South Australia. Thus, grants of land ceased in 1831, replaced by sale. Attempts to create a pastoral-lease system caused much friction, with colonists generally hostile to any demand for payment. In New South Wales in 1844, new regulations even prompted talk of rebellion.

With regard to labour, colonists agreed with imperial encouragement of free migration, but friction arose over the convicts. British opinion in the 1830s became increasingly critical of the assignment of convicts to private employers as smacking of slavery it was abolished in 1840, and with it transportation of convicts to the mainland virtually ceased, although increased numbers were sent to Tasmania. The end of assignment removed the chief virtue of transportation, from the colonists’ viewpoint, and so contributed to a vigorous movement against its continuation. The British government ended transportation to eastern Australia in 1852. In Western Australia transportation began in 1850, at the colonists’ behest, and continued until 1868. Altogether some 151,000 convicts were sent to eastern Australia and nearly 10,000 to Western Australia.

In the early 1850s the most dramatic political problem arose from the gold rushes. Diggers (miners) resented tax imposition and the absence of fully representative institutions. Discontent reached a peak at Ballarat, Victoria, and in December 1854, at the Eureka Stockade, troops and diggers clashed, and some were killed. The episode is the most famous of the few occasions in Australia’s history involving violence among Europeans.

Common suspicion of the imperial authority modified, but did not obliterate, internal tension among the colonists. Divisions of ideology and interest were quite strong, especially in Sydney, where a populist radicalism criticized men of wealth, notably the big landholders. The coming of self-government marked a leftward (although far from revolutionary) shift in the internal power balance.


Steam Engines

In 1769, the Watt steam engine changed everything. Boats were among the first to take advantage of steam-generated power in 1783, a French inventor by the name of Claude de Jouffroy built the "Pyroscaphe," the world’s first steamship. But despite successfully making trips up and down the river and carrying passengers as part of a demonstration, there wasn’t enough interest to fund further development.

While other inventors tried to make steamships that were practical enough for mass transport, it was American Robert Fulton who furthered the technology to where it was commercially viable. In 1807, the Clermont completed a 150-mile trip from New York City to Albany that took 32 hours, with the average speed clocking in at about five miles per hour. Within a few years, Fulton and company would offer regular passenger and freight service between New Orleans, Louisiana, and Natchez, Mississippi.

Back in 1769, another Frenchman named Nicolas Joseph Cugnot attempted to adapt steam engine technology to a road vehicle—the result was the invention of the first automobile. However, the heavy engine added so much weight to the vehicle that it wasn't practical. It had a top speed of 2.5 miles per hour.

Another effort to repurpose the steam engine for a different means of personal transport resulted in the "Roper Steam Velocipede." Developed in 1867, the two-wheeled steam-powered bicycle is considered by many historians to be the world’s first motorcycle.

Locomotives

One mode of land transport powered by a steam engine that did go mainstream was the locomotive. In 1801, British inventor Richard Trevithick unveiled the world’s first road locomotive—called the “Puffing Devil”—and used it to give six passengers a ride to a nearby village. It was three years later that Trevithick first demonstrated a locomotive that ran on rails, and another one that hauled 10 tons of iron to the community of Penydarren, Wales, to a small village called Abercynon.

It took a fellow Brit—a civil and mechanical engineer named George Stephenson—to turn locomotives into a form of mass transport. In 1812, Matthew Murray of Holbeck designed and built the first commercially successful steam locomotive, “The Salamanca,” and Stephenson wanted to take the technology a step further. So in 1814, Stephenson designed the "Blücher," an eight-wagon locomotive capable of hauling 30 tons of coal uphill at a speed of four miles per hour.

By 1824, Stephenson improved the efficiency of his locomotive designs to where he was commissioned by the Stockton and Darlington Railway to build the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the aptly named "Locomotion No. 1." Six years later, he opened the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first public inter-city railway line serviced by steam locomotives. His notable accomplishments also include establishing the standard for rail spacing for most of the railways in use today. No wonder he’s been hailed as "Father of Railways."


1 Laurence Hynes HalloranBigamist Preacher, Public School Founder

The problem with writing about Laurence Hynes Halloran is knowing where to start.

In 1825, a petition was submitted to the Australian government and all appropriate councils. It called for the establishment of the Public Free Grammar School in Sydney, and it was authored by Laurence Halloran, DD, professor of the classics and of mathematics. He began by saying that he wanted nothing more than to afford the minds of Sydney with the opportunities that went along with education, and the kindness he&rsquod found in Sydney had encouraged him to pay something back to this wonderful community.

It was a community that Halloran reached after a rather complicated series of events. An Irishman born in 1765, he was an orphan who joined the navy and was first jailed for the stabbing death of another midshipman in 1783. He was acquitted the next year, and he moved to Exeter to marry and to run a school, presumably because background checks hadn&rsquot been invented yet. Charged with &ldquoimmorality&rdquo in 1796, he tried to become an ordained minister and failed. That didn&rsquot stop him from reentering the navy as a chaplain, though, and he was installed with a group at the Cape of Good Hope. After running afoul of the commanding general, he decided that the best way to deal with the situation was to publish a series of false claims regarding the whole thing. He was, unsurprisingly, found guilty, returned to Europe, and set about on a lifestyle dependent on his abilities as a forger. Finally convicted on the charge of forging a tenpenny frank, he was shipped to Sydney.

There, he established his first school, and the story wasn&rsquot over yet. Separated from his first wife but reunited with his other family (which included some children and their mother, who was also likely Halloran&rsquos own niece), he kept on writing and kept getting buried in defamation suits. Financial ruin followed, and it was only after he served a prison sentence for debt that he petitioned for the founding of the above-mentioned public school.

That school opened in November 1825, and in a March 1826 edition of The Sydney Gazette, some of the plan&rsquos shortcomings were outlined. Halloran was accused of constant drunkenness and an addiction to swearing, and students told stories about fighting and his perpetual drunkenness. By October, the school&rsquos operation was suspended, but with Halloran conveniently in jail once again by November, the school embarked on a do-over. Once out of jail, Halloran opened his own newspaper, which could only loosely be called a newspaper, as it was known for publishing two things&mdasharticles by Halloran and reports on the libel suits issued against him.

When that business failed, he was briefly appointed as Sydney&rsquos coroner but was removed from that position when he threatened to start publishing still more articles about an archdeacon. He died not long after that in 1831, presumably having never learned his own lessons.


Watch the video: History of Australian Transport